Chief Editor

Shicheng Wang

Associate Editors

Xueying Gu, Xinyu Huang, Xin Liu

Southwest Petroleum University

Copyright © 2023 by Cayley Nielson Press, Inc.

ISBN: 978-1-957274-14-0

Cayley Nielson Press Scholarly Monograph Series Book Code No.: 213-11-1








With the acceleration of China's “carbon peak, carbon neutrality” process and the deepening of energy transformation, the demands for flexible regulated resources in the power system will be further increased. The installed capacity of gas turbines will have a great room for its growth. Combined with the speed-up development of electricity-to-gas technology, the electricity-gas interconnection systems (EGIS) are becoming the essential energy carriers. The construction of EGIS promotes renewable energy consumption and low-carbon transition of the energy systems. At the same time, it also brings about some potential security risks. The interdependence of the heterogeneous energy flows makes it possible that a failure on either side of the electric or natural gas system may spread across the systems through the coupling devices, eventually resulting in the cascading failures in the EGIS. There is an urgency to establish an effective coordinated security mechanism to strengthen the regular coordinated risk management, the coordinated control, and the energy exchange capability under extreme events. This book reviews the latest research progresses on the coordinated security mechanisms for the EGIS.

Wang Shicheng
Southwest Petroleum University
Chengdu, Sichuan, China
September 10, 2023




Chapter 1 EGIS Optimizes Resource Allocation 1
1.1 Electric-Gas Interconnection System Overview 1
1.1.1 System Composition 2
(A) Electric Power Grid 2
(1) Power Supply Type 2
(2) Grid Planning 9
(3) Power Transmission Technology 13
(B) Natural Gas Network 19
(1) Current Status of Natural Gas Network Development 20
(2) Natural Gas Transmission Technology 25
(3) Energy Conversion Device 33
1.1.2 Current Status of Research 45
(A) Power-To-Gas 45
(B) Natural Gas Power Generation 49
1.1.3 Features 52
(A) Structure: Development of Clean and Low-Carbon Energy as the Main 52
(B) Morphology 61
(C) Technology 62
(1) Secure and Efficient Energy Network Technology 62
(2) Energy Efficient Utilization Technology 63
(3) Digital Support Technology 64
(4) Mechanism: National Unified Market Mechanism, New Energy Consumption Long-Term Mechanism 66
1.2 Optimize Resource Allocation 69
1.2.1 Realization Path 69
(A) Consider the Complementary Characteristics of the Season 70
(B) Rational Arrangement of Energy Development Sites 75
(C) Storage and P2G Collaboration 79
(D) Break the Boundaries of Constraints between the Management Parties 84
(E) Improve the Reliability of the Electric-Air Coupling System 88
1.2.2 Effectiveness and significance 90
(A) Improve the New Energy Consumption Capacity of the System 90
(B) With a Certain Ability to Cut Peaks and Fill Valleys 94
(C) Realize Low-Carbon Economic Operation 96
(D) Disaster Recovery and Emergency Management 101
(E) Drive Innovation and Technology Development 104
(F) Promoting Economic Development 106
Chapter 2 EGIS Collaborative Security Mechanism 109
2.1 EGIS Fault Review and Analysis 109
2.1.1 Fault Review 111
2.1.2 Main Fault Triggers 115
(A) Direct Causes 115
(1) Manipulation Error of Related Personnel 115
(2) Insufficient Anti-Freezing Measures for Natural Gas Production and Transportation Facilities 116
(3) Insufficient Natural Gas Storage Support Capacity 117
(B) Root Causes 118
(1) Lack of Collaborative Situational Awareness and Security Warning Mechanisms 119
(2) Lack of Information Interaction Pathways and Collaborative Control Mechanisms 121
(3) Inadequate Demand Response Mechanism 123
(4) Inadequate Legal and Government Regulation 125
2.2 EGIS Situation Awareness and Security Warning 127
2.2.1 Situation Awareness Related Technologies 127
2.2.2 Safety Early Warning Related Technologies 133
2.2.3 EGIS Collaborative Preventive/Corrective Control 138
2.3 The Challenges and Future of Collaborative Security Mechanisms 142
2.3.1 The Challenge of Change 142
(A) Synergistic Safety Mechanisms for High Percentage Penetration of New Energy Sources 142
(B) There are Information Barriers and Conflicts of Interest Among Market Players 143
(C) Facing Security Awareness and Cultural Challenges 157
(D) Technical Integration Challenges between Different Systems 159
2.3.2 Future Prospects 161
(A) Rational Equilibrium Solution for Energy Flow Model 163
(B) Multi-Timescale Fusion State Estimation Method 166
(C) Safety Margin Assessment 171
(D) System Operation Security Risk Forward Warning 175
(E) Fully Utilize the Energy Internet 181
(F) Developing Policy and Regulatory Frameworks 185
Chapter 3 Supporting New Energy Integration 189
3.1 Introduction 189
3.2 Electric-Gas Integrated Energy System Peak Load Shaving and Valley Filling Model 193
3.2.1 Integrated Electricity-Gas Energy Systems with Power-To-Gas (P2G) 193
(A) Power-to-Gas 193
3.2.2 Integrated Electricity-Gas Energy System 195
3.2.3 Peak Load Shaving and Valley Filling Principle 195
3.2.4 Objective Function 197
3.2.5 Power Network Constraints 200
3.2.6 Gas Network Constraints 202
(A) Air Source Point 202
(B) Pipeline 203
(C) Custody 204
(D) Storage Gas Tanks 205
(E) Compressor 206
(F) Flow Balance 207
3.2.7 Coupling Constraints Between Power and Natural Gas Systems 207
3.2.8 Calculation Example Analysis 209
(A) Illustration of Calculation 209
(B) Scenario Description 211
(C) Result Analysis 212
3.2.9 Coordination of Economic Cost Objective and Peak and Valley Reduction Objective 215
3.2.10 Subsection 217
3.3 Wind Power Disposal and Low-Carbon Economic Dispatch of Power-Gas Interconnection Network with P2G on a Step-By-Step Linear Basis 218
3.3.1 IEGN with P2G Abandoned Wind Power Consumption and Low Carbon Synergy Mechanism 218
3.3.2 Comprehensive Carbon Cost Model 220
3.3.3 Dynamic Low Carbon Economy Scheduling of IEGN Considering Carbon Trading 223
(A) Objective Function of Synergy Between Low Carbon Economy and Wind Power Consumption 223
(B) Constraints on the Operation of the Power Grid 226
3.3.4 Constraints on the Operation of Natural Gas Networks 228
(A) Dynamic Characteristics of Natural Gas Transmission and its Tidal Constraints 228
(B) Operating Constraints for Natural Gas Sources and Compressors 230
3.3.5 Power Exchange Constraint of Power Grid-Gas Network Coupling Equipment 231
3.3.6 Scheduling Model Solving Based on Improved Successive Linearization Method 231
(A) Successive Linearization Model 232
(B) Optimal Step Size for One-Dimensional Search 233
3.3.7 Analysis of Calculation Example 235
(A) Impact of Carbon Feedstock Cost and Pipe Storage Characteristics on P2G Wind Power Consumption 237
(B) Impact of Carbon Trading Mechanism on P2G Operation and System Scheduling 243
(C) Two-Objective Synergistic Characterization of the Wind Abandonment Cost Coefficient 245
(D) Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Improved Incremental Linearization Method 247
3.3.8 Subsection 249
3.4 Cross-Regional IEGES Centralized Coordinated Regulation for Wind Power Consumption 251
3.4.1 AC System Steady-State Tidal Model 251
3.4.2 DC System Operation and Control Model 252
3.4.3 Natural Gas System 256
3.4.4 Coupling Originals 261
3.4.5 Adjustment of Scheduling Plan Preparation Sequence and Response Slow Characteristics 263
3.4.6 Day-Ahead Optimization and Regulation Model 265
(A) Objective Function and Constraints 265
(B) Linearization Methods 269
3.4.7 Analysis of Calculation Examples 273
(A) Introduction to the Calculation Example 273
(B) The Impact of HVDC Operation Optimization on the System 275
(C) Influence of P2G and Tube Storage on System Operation Mode 278
3.4.8 Short Summary 283
3.4.9 Roadmap to Urban Energy Internet: Techno-Enviro-Economic Analysis of Renewable Electricity and Natural Gas Integrated Energy System 284
3.5 Summary of this Chapter 304
Chapter 4 Enhanced Flexible Operation 311
4.1 Introduction 311
4.1.1 Origin and Development of Flexibility 314
4.1.2 Flexibility and Consumption Capacity Evaluation 316
(A) Indicator Evaluation Method 317
(B) Integrated Model Method 318
4.1.3 Status of Research on Optimal Configuration of Flexibility Climbing Capacity 320
(A) Exogenous Method 321
(B) Endogenous Method 321
4.2 Status of Research on the Optimal Operation of Electricity-Gas Interconnection Systems 323
4.3 Description Method of Wind Power Dissipative Domain 327
4.3.1 Introduction 327
4.3.2 Definition of the Wind Power Dissipative Domain 328
4.3.3 Description of Wind Power Dissipative Domain in Spatial Dimension 330
(A) Uncertain Interval-Based Approach for Quantifying the Climbing Demand 330
(B) Mathematical Expression 332
4.3.4 Description of the Wind Power Consumable Domain in the Time Dimension 334
(A) Modeling of Wind Power Time Dependence 334
(B) Polygon Domain-Based Approach to Quantify Climbing Demand 336
(C) Description of the Wind Power Dissipative Domain Considering Time Dependence 339
4.3.5 Summary 342
4.4 Application of Wind Power Consumable Domain in Unit Combination 343
4.4.1 Introduction 343
4.4.2 Three-Stage Interval Optimization Method 345
(A) Maximizing the ADWP 345
(B) Minimizing Operating Costs 345
(C) Penalty Cost Evaluation 348
4.4.3 Scenario-Based Stochastic Optimization Approach 351
4.4.4 Analysis of the Algorithm 352
(A) Calculation Example Data 352
(B) Analysis of Unit Combination Results 354
(C) Analysis of Wind Power Dissipative Domain Results 357
(D) Parameter Sensitivity Analysis 359
4.4.5 Summary 362
4.5 A Collaborative Optimization Approach for Electric-Air Interconnected Systems Taking into Account Flexibility Creep 363
4.5.1 Introduction 363
4.5.2 Robust Scheduling Model for Electric-Gas Interconnected Systems with Flexibility Creep 364
(A) Objective Function 364
(B) Constraints 366
4.5.3 Model Solving Method 373
(A) Linearization of the Model 373
(B) Elimination of Uncertain Variables 374
(C) Overall Model 377
4.6 Case Analysis 380
4.6.1 16-Node Power System - 6-Node Natural Gas System IEGS 380
(A) Test System and Algorithm Setup 380
(B) Effect of Electric-Air Coupling 383
(C) Impact of Climbing Constraint 385
(D) Impact of Wind Power Output Time Dependence 385
(E) Comparison with Other Methods 386
4.6.2 118-node power system - 12-node natural gas system IEGS 390
4.7 Summary 392
4.8 Conclusion 393
4.9 A Systematic Review of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems with Hydrogen Storage: Sizing, Optimization, and Energy Management Strategy 396
Chapter 5 Equilibrium in The Energy Market 425
5.1 Market Hypothesis Analysis 425
5.1.1 Status Quo of Energy System 425
5.1.2 Energy Market 428
5.1.3 Energy System Transformation in the Market 431
5.2 Build Process and Methodology 441
5.2.1 Progress in Energy Technology 441
(A) Electric-To-Gas Technology P2G(Power To Gas) 442
(B) Natural Gas Network Model 444
5.2.2 Development Direction of Energy System 447
5.2.3 Balanced Build 449
(A) Equilibrium Market System for Electricity and Rest of the Energy Sources 449
(B) Mathematical Model 453
(C) Overview of Market Equilibrium Analysis of Multi-energy Systems 460
(D) Operation Mechanism of Electricity-Gas Asynchronous Market 462
(E) Market Equilibrium of Multi-energy Systems Based on Game Theory 465
5.2.4 China's Carbon Market Challenges 468
5.3 Significance of Equilibrium Result 475
5.3.1 System Scheduling Optimization 475
5.3.2 Improve Carbon Market and Energy Market 480
5.3.3 Regional Low-Carbon Comprehensive Energy System Planning 486
5.4 Theoretical Basis of Carbon Market and Energy Market Linkage 500
5.4.1 Externality 501
5.4.2 Coase Theorem and Carbon Emission Right in Resource Allocation 502
5.4.3 The Mechanism of Influencing Factors of Carbon Valence 503
Chapter 6 Promote Carbon Reduction and Emission Reduction 509
6.1 Significance of Carbon Reduction 509
6.1.1 National Strategic Objectives 509
6.1.2 Carbon Neutralization and Energy Development 514
(A) Bilateral Coordinated Development of Energy Supply and Demand 514
(B) Low-Carbon Innovation 518
(C) Externality of Energy Use 520
6.2 Low Carbon Theory and Problem Challenge 522
6.2.1 Exploration of Existing Relevant Theories 523
6.2.2 Pressure on Carbon Emissions 526
6.2.3 Study on Low Carbon Transition 529
6.2.4 Structural Features of China's Carbon Market System 537
6.2.5 Problems in the Carbon Quota Trading Market 541
(A) Various Types of Market Risks Credit Risk Arising from Asymmetric Information 541
(B) Inherent Complexity of Pilot Carbon Trading in China 545
(C) Market Mechanism not Fully Functioning 546
(D) Development Trend of China's Carbon Quota Trading Market 547
6.3 Low-Carbon Market Economy Mechanism 548
6.3.1 Theoretical Analysis of Carbon Market Generation 549
6.3.2 P2G Mathematical Model 552
6.3.3 Role of Carbon Market Mechanism 554
6.3.4 Low-carbon Economic Model Based on Carbon Trading Mechanism 560
(A) Carbon Emissions 560
(B) Carbon Emission Right 562
(C) Three Initial Quota Modes 563
6.3.5 Incentive Mechanism for P2G to Participate in Carbon Trading Market 569
6.3.6 Research Results and Enlightenment 572
6.3.7 Prospects for China's Carbon Market 577
(A) Prospects for the Construction of Domestic Carbon Market in China 578
(B) Prospects for China's Participation in International Carbon Market 581
(C) Prospects for the Coordinated Operation of China's Electricity and Carbon Markets 583
6.4 Economic Path of Emission Reduction 585
6.4.1 Path Choice of Energy Supply and Demand Co-development under the Background of Carbon Neutralization 585
6.4.2 Flexible Resource Integration for Dual Carbon Goals 595
(A) Flexible Resource Integration 595
(B) Optimal Dispatching and Fine Settlement in Electricity Market 596
(C) Multiple Auxiliary Service Products and Main-Auxiliary Joint Optimization 598
(D) Long-Term Investment Guidance 599
6.4.3 Looking for Ways to Achieve the Goal of "Dual Carbon" 599
(A) Main Work Contents of Current Carbon Reduction 600
(B) Monitor Key Energy-Consuming Enterprises to Save Energy Consumption 601
References 604



This book should be useful for students, scientists, engineers and professionals working in the areas of optoelectronic packaging, photonic devices, semiconductor technology, materials science, polymer science, electrical and electronics engineering. This book could be used for one semester course on adhesives for photonics packaging designed for both undergraduate and graduate engineering students.


Originality and Plagiarism

Prospective authors should note that only original and previously unpublished manuscripts will be considered. The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others, that this has been appropriately cited or quoted. Furthermore, simultaneous submissions are not acceptable. Submission of a manuscript is interpreted as a statement of certification that no part of the manuscript is copyrighted by any other publication nor is under review by any other formal publication. It is the primary responsibility of the author to obtain proper permission for the use of any copyrighted materials in the manuscript, prior to the submission of the manuscript.